It's possible to do it from the command line. If you increment the last octet of the IP, you could do a basic ping sweep using a batch script. But, that would only be successful for systems that are currently accepting and replying to ICMP echo requests (a.k.a. pings). And it would be a bit time consuming executing the ping command 253 times. Much more successful are TCP, UDP, SYN, NULL or XMAS-TREE scans. But they all require access to raw sockets, which unless I just haven't discovered the feature yet, aren't supported by the native Windows command prompt. In Linux, bash can give you access to stream sockets, but those don't allow for low enough control for these types of scans either. You really need the raw sockets here. But, if you don't feel like coding the scanner yourself, another alternative, is to just use a pre-existing one, like nmap. You can get a few extra host details that way too.
UPDATE: Well lookie ~>here<~
! Apparently pinging your broadcast address serves to make that batch idea above, even more time consuming and useless. Again, same principle applies for hosts that don't response to ICMP echo though. Plus some instructions for that sweep with nmap I mentioned too.