Welcome to HTS. Most people come in here just saying they want to learn to hack but never put any more thought into it. Know that it takes a lot of time and lot of learning, and most of the time you have to rely on self motivation because there are dry spells.
get passwords -- depending on what you are trying to get them off of these techniques vary, research how passwords work and are stored. Example: SAM file
alter/take over websites -- research website defacement and privilege escalation
forge emails -- this is called email spoofing
remotely access and control other computers -- research Remote Administration Tools (RATs)
learn to use keyloggers or what have you -- keyloggers come in many flavors
build my own websites -- HUGE topic and can be done from a premade builder or from complete scratch
1. Start with the challenges here.
2. Google is your best friend, you can nearly find any answer to any question out there. Don't ignore the best tool at your disposal. Once you find a topic you want to really get your teeth into, find books (ebooks, pdfs, hardcopies) that cover that topic. Finding all encompassing hacking books never tell you all the information you need to learn.
3. When you know the ins and outs of each step you are taking. For example; learning to crack WEP make sure you have looked at every angle of the concepts and techniques before you move onto WPA/WPA2.
4. This is an easier question to answer once you start learning something. In short, you'll know.
5. Not really, depends entirely on the individual.
6. Don't ever think about this. It keeps you too distracted and you will rush, skipping important steps in the learning process.
"The quieter you become, the more you are able to hear..."
"Drink all the booze, hack all the things."