Alright let's get this frequency thing out of the way first.
Ch1 - 2.412 GHz
Ch6 - 2.437 GHz
Ch11 - 2.462 GHz
USA – Uses channels 1 to 11 (2.412 GHz – 2.462 GHz)
Europe – Uses channels 1 to 13 (2.412 GHz – 2.472 GHz)
Japan – Uses channels 1 to 14 (2.412 GHz – 2.484 GHz)
Now depending on which protocal and frequency your routers are using (for each channel) it can cause different problems depending on your setup. What I mean is below:
802.11 – The original WLAN standard
802.11a – Up to 54 Mbit/s on 5 GHz
802.11b – 5.5 Mbit/s and 11 Mbit/s on 2.4 GHz
802.11g – Up to 54 Mbit/s on 2.4 GHz. Backward compatible with 802.11b
802.11i – Provides enhanced security
802.11n – Provides higher throughput with Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO)
Assuming these routers have been setup by professionals who understand the complications and differences between antenna types, channel width, walls, and interference vs collisions; then your next step is to check for packet losses between channel hops and how often they hop. This includes device transfers to other routers while in motion. It could simply be a matter of your settings being far too sensitive and get stuck in violent hopping loops (for a period of time). Afterwards I would exam packet captures from assosication traffic. Are there are plethora of deauths? Are associations not being directed at the right receiver, etc.
How is your network setup? Encryption types, student vs staff seperated channels (for example), etc.?
You really haven't given us much to work with to really assist you here. I could really go on for a long time about possibilities
To answer your last question, no. It doesn't work like that. These signals are not being isolated and thus a lot of interferences may occur.